Purba Bardhhaman district extends from 23o53′ N to 22o56′ N Latitude and 88o25′ E to 87o56′ E Longitude. Lying within Burdwan Division, the district is bounded on the north by Birbhum and Murshidabad, on the east by Nadia, on the south by Hooghly and Bankura, and on the west by Paschim Bardhaman districts.
The district lies mainly between the Ajay, The Bhagirathi or Hooghly, and The Damodar Rivers. The Ajay separates it on the North from the Birbhum and Murshidabad district forming a natural boundary line till shortly before its junction with the Bhagirathi; while on the south The Damodar, running parallel to the Ajay for a considerable portion of its course and forms the main boundary. A small portion of the Katwa subdivision lies to the north of The Ajay, and the Khandaghosh and Raina Blocks of the Headquarter subdivision lie to the south of The Damodar, which here takes a sharp bend to the southeast. The Bhagirathi forms the main boundary with Nadia, but a small strip of land on the right bank of the river which contains the town of Nadia belongs to that district. The south-eastern boundary marches with The Hooghly district.
Purba Bardhaman district is a flat alluvial plain area that can be divided into four prominent topographical regions. On the north, the Kanksa Ketugram Plain lies along with the Ajay, which joins the Bhagirathi. The Bardhaman Plain occupies the central area of the district, with the Damodar on the south and the south-east. On the southern part is the Khandaghosh Plain. The Bhagirathi flows along the eastern boundary of the district, and the Bhagirathi Basin occupies the eastern part of the district. The undulating laterite topography of Paschim Bardhaman district extends up to the Ausgram area of this district.
The gradient is westerly to the west and to the east, it is northerly towards Ajay and southerly towards Damodar below the latitude. The Ajoy- Damodar inter-stream tract is made up of several stows consisting of vales and low convex spurs which run in almost all directions except north-east and thus lends a very complicated character to local relief.
The river system in Barddhaman includes the Bhagirathi-Hooghly in the east, the Ajoy and its tributaries in the north and the Damodar and its branches in the south-west. Besides, there are innumerable Khals and old river beds all over the area.
The notable rivers and khals are Damodar, Bhagirathi, Ajay, Singaram, Kukua, Kunur, Tumuni, Khari, Banka, Chanda-kanki nala, Behula, Gangur, Brahmani, Khandesvari, Karulia nala, Dwaraka or Babla, Koiya nala, Kandarkahal, Kanadamodar, Kananadi, Ghea, Kakinadi etc.
Different types of soil are encountered in different topographical biological and hydrological as well as a geological conditions within the Purba Barddhaman district. Towards the east alluvial soil attains an enormous thickness in the low-level plains to the east. This alluvial soil is formed of alluvium brought down by the Ajay, Damodar, Bhagirathi, and numerous other rivers. These soils are sandy, well-drained, and slightly acidic in nature.
There are many tanks, wells, canals, swamps, and bills are found all over the district. Within the Damodar Valley region,there are around 17000 tanks.
The forest areas of the district are chiefly situated in the lateritic and red soil high lands in the Aushgram PS of Sadar Subdivision. In Ausgram P.S. the forest areas are interspersed with paddy fields.
The flora of the district is characterized by the arborescent species such as Simul, Neem, Amlaki, Aam, Jam,Narikel, Khejur, Tal, Bot, Aswattha, Palas, Krishnachuda, Amra, Peyara, Dumur, Ghentu or Bhat, Gulancha, Tulsi and other herbs.
The common aquatic and marsh weeds found in the jheels and swamps in the district are Kash, Bena, sola, Pond-weed, Kesar-dam, Kush, Pana, Mootha, Bara-pana, Hogla, Padma, etc.
The carnivora of the district comprise leopard, wolf, hyaena, jackal and other smaller species, but hyaenas and leopards are not common. Wolves are scarce, and are mostly met with in the jungles north of Kanksa. Wild pigs are numerous throughout the district and monkeys also abound including the variety known as Hanuman. Poisonous snakes are very common and include several kinds of cobra, the karait and the deadly Russell’s viper. Other most frequently seen varieties are the Dhamna and various species of harmless grass snakes.
The common avifauna of the district are pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, jungle crow, house crow, treepie, common babbler, gold-fronted chloropsis, red-vented babul, red-whiskered bulbul, red spotted bluethroat, brown-backed robin, Shama, flycatcher, wood shrike, black drongo, tailor bird, streaked fantail warbler, golden oriole, common mayna, pied mayna, white-backed munia, white-throated munia, spitted munia, red munia, yellow-throated sparrow, house sparrow, woodpecker, India cuckoo, pied crested cuckoo, koel, parakeet, nilkantha, bee-eater, kingfisher, horned owl, spotted owlet, jungle owlet, griffon vulture, long-billed vulture, scavenger vulture, lagger falcon, small spotted eagle, brahminy kite, pariah kite, sparrow hawk, various types of pigeon and dove, goose, duck, teal, lapwing, white necked stork and several varieties of egret and heron. The low-lying swampy areas of Barddhaman being in line of migration provide a very good sheltering place for the migratory birds in winter.
Of the rivers and rivulets which pass through the district of Purba Barddhaman, the Ganges (Bhagirathi), the Damodar, the Banka, the Ajoy and the Khari constitute the fisheries of some importance. Out of these rivers, only the Ganges maintains the flow of water throughout the year. The flow of Damodar depends entirely upon the discharge of water by DVC from its barrages. The other rivers practically dry up in hot months when fishes accumulate in depressions here and there to caught indiscriminately by the fisherman.
Principal catches from the above rivers are as follows:- Rohu, Mrigle, Katla, Kharke Bata, Bhangan Bata, Shrimps, Maurala, Pabda, Tengra, Bele, Chela, Punti, Boal, Aid, Galda, Vacha, Chital, Pholoi, Khaira, Magur, Sol, Bhola, kalbose etc.
Purba Bardhaman district has a tropical climate – hot and humid. While the hottest month is May, the coldest is January. The monsoon season is from June to September, with an annual average rainfall of 1,400 mm, 75% of it falling in the monsoon months. Localised thunderstorms, called kalbaisakhi in Bengali, are a special feature from March until the monsoon sets in.
The cold season starts from about the middle of November and continues till the end of February. March to May is dry summer intervened by tropical cyclones and storms. June to September is wet summer while October and November is autumn.